The Exposure Triangle: The Fundamental Elements of Exposure

The Exposure Triangle: aperture, shutter speed and ISO

When I started in the photography world, words like Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO were foreign to me, and it took me a couple of weeks to take pictures in full manual mode after read a photography book and look in Internet to obtain more information. You might be feeling a little confused, and you may even feel like you will never get your camera out of Auto mode, because it’s just too hard to understand. But I’m sure after read this post you will start to try by yourself in manual mode and experiment the different possibilities.

What is Exposure in Photography?

In the simplest of terms, exposure for photographers refers to how an image is recorded by camera sensor and how much light is captured. Basically, it determines what the image you capture will look like.

Understanding the Exposure Triangle

ISO, Aperture and Shutter are known as the “exposure triangle”. If you know how to control or adjust these elements on your camera, taking well exposed photos will not be a problem for you. Take your time to know your camera and find each adjustment. The most important thing before all, it’s to know your controls and how to change them to have a correct exposure.

Copyright https://www.exposureguide.com/exposure/

Copyright https://www.exposureguide.com/exposure/

With the experience, you will be able to make the correct adjustment faster and faster. Finally, it has to be by intuition, as a athlete in any sport.

The three elements are:

  1. ISO – the measure of a digital camera sensor’s sensitivity to light

  2. Aperture – the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken

  3. Shutter Speed – the amount of time that the shutter is open

It is at the intersection of these three elements that an image’s exposure is worked out.

Most importantly – a change in one of the elements will impact the others. This means that you can never really isolate just one of the elements alone but always need to have the others in the back of your mind.

Side 1: Aperture

Aperture. Aperture controls the brightness of the image that passes through the lens and falls on the image sensor. It is expressed as an f-number (written as “f/” followed by a number), such as f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, /f4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, or f/32.

A wider aperture (or lower f-number) means more light will be let in by the lens, simply because the opening is larger. A narrower aperture (or higher f-number) allows less light to reach the sensor.

  • SMALL numbers (like f/1.8) = wide open aperture (large opening).

  • BIG numbers (like f/22) = small aperture (teeny opening).

Another thing that can be affected by aperture is depth of field, or how much of your picture is in sharp focus. A wide open aperture (small number) will make less in focus, and a closed down aperture (big number) will make more in focus.

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Copyright https://www.better-digital-photo-tips.com/deep-depth-of-field.html

Try to use Aperture Mode in your camera to see the difference between wide and small apertures.

Side 2: Shutter Speed

In photography, shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light, also when a camera's shutter is open when taking a photograph. The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time. 1⁄500 of a second will let half as much light in as 1⁄250.

If you have a wide open aperture, your shutter speed will need to be faster, because you’re already letting a lot of light in the lens opening. If your aperture is small, your shutter will need to move slower, so there is more time for light to get to the sensor.

If you want to freeze the action, or hand-hold your camera, then a faster shutter speed is needed. If you want to create blur, then you need a slower shutter speed. 

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Copyright https://lottiesimpkinsgcsephotography.weebly.com/shutter-speed.html

You can try your Shutter Priority Mode to obtain different results. Long exposure is amazing when you take pictures by night but remember to use a tripod to have more stabilized shots. As you play with these different priority modes, notice what the camera chooses for the rest of your settings. The more you pay attention to these things, the more knowledge you’ll have to be able to set everything yourself in the future.

Side 3: ISO

ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The same principles apply as in film photography – the lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain. ...

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Copyright http://stylenoviceblog.blogspot.com/2015/07/dslr-basics-aperture-shutter-speed-and.html

By choosing a higher ISO you can use a faster shutter speed to freeze the movement. But take care about this, higher ISO means higher grain on your pictures.

Copyright https://www.exposureguide.com/exposure/

Copyright https://www.exposureguide.com/exposure/

In low light conditions, you should increase your ISO to obtain a correct exposure.

Side 4: EVs and Stops

Almost all digital cameras have an Exposure Value (EV) Compensation setting. This setting is needed because the camera can sometimes make incorrect assumptions about the lighting of a photo. Changing the EV will make sure your photos are always correctly exposed.

In photography, a "stop" is a widely misunderstood concept, feared by many because it sounds so complicated. However, it's actually very simple:

A stop is a doubling or halving of the amount of light let in when taking a photo.

For example, if you hear a photographer say he's going to increase his exposure by 1 stop, he simply means he's going to capture twice as much light as on the previous shot to obtain the correct EV.

This amount of light captured while taking a photo is known as the exposure value as said previously, and it's affected by the exposure triangle - the shutter speed, the aperture diameter, and the ISO. These are all measured using different units, so the concept of "stops" was invented as a convenient way to compare them.

Forward, perhaps I will repeat some concepts but if you understand what they are the stops and how the 3 variables can affects your pictures, you will understand the exposure triangle and how to use it at any moment.

STOPS AND SHUTTER SPEED

Shutter speed measures how long your camera's shutter is left open during a shot. The longer it's open, the more light it lets in, and the greater your total exposure will be. Doubling or halving your shutter speed produces an increase or decrease of 1 stop of exposure.

Common shutter speed stops.

Common shutter speed stops.

For example, changing from 1/100 of a second to 1/200 lets in half as much light, so we can say we've decreased the exposure by 1 stop. Similarly, going from 1/60 to 1/30 lets in twice as much light, giving a 1 stop increase in exposure.

Most cameras allow you to adjust shutter speeds in increments of 1/3 of a stop, so 3 turns of the dial either way will adjust your exposure by 1 stop.

STOPS AND ISO SPEED

ISO speed describes how sensitive your camera's sensor is to the light that hits it. A more sensitive sensor will produce the same overall exposure from less light, meaning that you can use a narrower aperture or faster shutter speed in the same conditions.

Common ISO speed stops.

Common ISO speed stops.

ISO is measured using values that correspond to the ASA scale for film, with a higher ISO number relating to a more sensitive sensor. As with shutter speed, doubling the ISO number gives an increase of 1 stop, while halving gives it a decrease of 1 stop.

For example, switching from ISO 100 to ISO 200 doubles the sensor's sensitivity, producing a 1 stop increase. Moving from ISO 800 to ISO 400 is a 1 stop decrease. Most cameras let you change ISO speed in increments of 1 stop.

STOPS AND APERTURE DIAMETER

Aperture is measured using the "f-number", sometimes called the "f-stop", which describes the diameter of the aperture. A lower f-number relates to a wider aperture (one that lets in more light), while a higher f-number means a narrower aperture (less light).

Common aperture stops.

Common aperture stops.

Because of the way f-numbers are calculated, a stop doesn't relate to a doubling or halving of the value, but to a multiplying or dividing by 1.41 (the square root of 2). For example, going from f/2.8 to f/4 is a decrease of 1 stop because 4 = 2.8 * 1.41. Changing from f/16 to f/11 is an increase of 1 stop because 11 = 16 / 1.41.

As with shutter speed, most cameras let you control your aperture in 1/3 stop increments.

STOPS ARE INTERCHANGEABLE

The great thing about stops is that they give us a way to directly compare shutter speed, aperture diameter, and ISO speed. This means that we can easily swap these three components about while keeping the overall exposure the same.

Let's say you're shooting a scene using a shutter speed of 1/60 of a second, an aperture of f/8, and an ISO of 200. You find that while the scene is well exposed, your subject is turning out a bit blurry, so you decide to increase the shutter speed to 1/120 of a second.

This change of 1 stop will result in the next photo coming out dark, because you're now letting in half the total light as before. In order to correct this, you need to reclaim that 1 stop reduction from somewhere else. Now that we have a way of comparing settings, this is simple.

You could open the aperture wider to let in more light - moving from f/8 to f/5.6 is an increase of 1 stop, so we've got back to our original exposure. Alternatively you could double the ISO speed from 200 to 400, again resulting in a 1 stop increase.

As you can see, stops are a really easy way of adjusting our camera's settings while making sure we don't ruin the photo's overall exposure.

Conclusion: CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ADJUSTING EXPOSURE

When adjusting the three components of exposure you should be aware that each one affects your photos in other ways, which may not always be desirable:

Shutter speed - If your shutter speed is too slow your photo may blur, either from movement of the camera or movement of the subject.

Aperture - A wide aperture produces a narrow depth of field, so if you make it too wide you may have trouble keeping everything in focus. On the other hand, a narrow depth of field can help to isolate the subject, and is often something that you want; if so, you need to avoid using a narrow aperture.

ISO speed - The more you increase your camera's ISO, the more digital noise your photos will exhibit. This can make your image look grainy and reduce its sharpness.

As with everything in photography, adjusting these three settings is a balancing act. You need to decide what effects you want in your shot and choose settings that will produce them while minimising the potential downsides. Exposure stops are a really useful tool for doing this, helping you swap settings around with ease and giving you more control over your scene.

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Ferrari 458 Italia & Ferrari 488 GTB

Italian Event Circuit Zandvoort 2017

Italian Event Circuit Zandvoort 2017

Italian Event Circuit Zandvoort 2017

I was invited to this event in Netherlands in 2017 and It was also my first time in this circuit. But I didn't realize how my passion it has this country for motorsports. People loves and takes care so much about their beauties that it's easy to feel it. After some hours expended around the circuit I could take some great pictures about rare and precious Italian cars. A long list can be done: Ferraris, Lamborghinis, Alfa Romeo, Fiat, Maseratti, Vespa, Ducati... But also, you can see , smell and hear the italian passion, culture and habits. This was a great day with great pictures and nice vibes. Finally, after all the cars I could take on picture, I wanted to make a blog about these reasons: Ferrari 458 Italia & Ferrari 488 GTB. For 2 reasons, the quality of pictures and because I loved to shoot those cars. The lines and curves are perfect for my point of view as photographer. I really enjoyed to see and shoot them in a few minutes.

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari 458 Italia, the latest V8 Ferrari, the licence to move into more serious territory. There is nothing remotely junior about 562bhp or a top speed in excess of 200mph.

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari 458 Italia

Any observations about the Ferrari 458 Italia’s styling are, of course, entirely subjective but, in our office, the consensus is that it marks a return to sensational-looking Ferraris.

With a flat undertray, but without any obvious aero aids, the 458 generates more downforce than the F430 (360kg flat out) and yet it is also more aerodynamic.

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari 458 Italia

Finally, there is a touch of Enzo in the 458’s overall design, particularly in the shape and position of the rear lights (although the Enzo had twin units). Vents below the rear lights are for radiators to cool the gearbox and clutch.

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari 458 Italia

Ferrari's 458 has extensively restyled, given a turbocharged V8 with more power and loads more torque and a new name. Meet the Ferrari 488 GTB, the Ferrari that makes a 458 Italia look slow...

Ferrari 488 GTB

Ferrari 488 GTB

 

While the looks of the 2015 Ferrari 488 are not entirely different, it's actually an almost entirely new car, with 85 percent of its parts changed from the 458, and the roof the only external panel retained. The engine has shrunk slightly in size but grown vastly in power and new aero innovations, combined with some superior software, are claimed to make it handle better than ever. It is overwhelmingly, however, a Ferrari built for speed.

Ferrari 488 GTB

Ferrari 488 GTB

It's the kind of performance that mounts a serious case for turbocharging (although Ferrari admits that engine response time at 2000rpm is now 0.8 seconds, at 2000rpm, compared to 0.7 in  a 458, but still well-ahead of “our turbo competitors − McLaren, Porsche etc”, which it says are closer to 2.0 seconds).

 

But is it a sound argument? Well, no, because despite the engineers repeatedly promising us that  they’d tuned the car to deliver the “sharp and loud, unmistakable Ferrari sound,” it takes less than two minutes in the 488 to realise that the screaming, operatic exhaust-asm that has defined the brand − and the 458 in particular − is gone. 

Ferrari 488 GTB

Ferrari 488 GTB

Choosing between the two comes down to what you are looking for in your Ferrari road car. If you love the roar of a naturally aspirated Ferrari engine, you might want to explore the 458 Italia. If speed is your true desire, the Ferrari 488 GTB will delight. Which will you choose?

Ferrari 488 GTB

Ferrari 488 GTB

And Suddenly, when I was going home, in the last moment:

Ferrari 488 GTB Safety Car

Ferrari 488 GTB Safety Car

Car comparison test of Ferrari F430 vs Ferrari 458 italia vs Ferrari 488 GTB compare Ferrari F430 vs Ferrari 458 italia vs Ferrari 488 GTB sounds, revs, acceleration 0-300km/h, power, sprint and exhaust sound. Send me your car videos here: slizo3310@gmail.com We do NOT own the video materials and all credits belong to respectful owners.

Nissan 350Z

I was a owner of one Nissan 350Z some years ago, a red unit. Pretty rare in europe, the color isn't very common I can say after visit some Z meetings around Spain or France. Firstly, I want to advise that I can't be objective in this review as this car was and is my favourite daily car.

Nissan 350Z 2005

Nissan 350Z 2005

The Nissan 350Z recaptures elements of the original Datsun 240Z. It's fast, it's fun, it's pure sports car. And, like the original Z, it's affordable, or at least attainable. 

In 2005 Nissan commemorates 35 years of Z production with a special anniversary edition coupe, and there's much more to the model than just the unique badge. A significant dose of performance has also been added, including a bump in engine output to 300 horsepower, big Brembo brakes, 18-inch five-spoke alloy wheels and improved aerodynamics. There's also a new, very special high-chrome pearl Ultra Yellow pigment on the colour chart. 

The coupe, introduced as an all-new model for 2003, and the convertible, which debuted last year, get important upgrades, new features and revised transmissions. All 350Zs share the same sports suspension and Nissan's superb V6 engine, which punches out 287 horsepower and strong torque. Both models come standard with racy hardware: a six-speed manual gearbox, carbon-fiber driveshaft, drive-by-wire throttle, anti-lock discs vented front and rear with electronic brake-force distribution. Add the convenience features that come standard, such as automatic temperature control and a premium stereo, and the price of the Nissan 350Z is compelling. 

Nissan 350Z left side car

Nissan 350Z left side car

Coupe or roadster, the 350Z delivers racecar handling, rear-wheel drive, and thrilling acceleration performance. The suspension keeps the tires glued to the road through fast chicanes. Bounce over the curbs on a road racing circuit and the Z will hold its line. Styling details like the controversial industrial-design door handles ensure this car will never be called bland. 

Nissan says the 350Z was designed to be a sports car an enthusiast can live with every day. While its firm ride, abrupt throttle response, and awkward cup holders don't make it a great place to drink coffee, eat doughnuts, and make phone calls on the way to work, it is a comfortable car with usable cargo space, and getting in and out isn't impossibly awkward. Order a version with the excellent five-speed automatic, and you'll have a better commuter for the daily stop-and-go. But,..., we all know what we are searching with this kind of car.

Bottom line: The Nissan 350Z is no poser. It's a real sports car with serious GT performance. 

The 350Z looks aggressive with its bulging front fenders and fast back. The shape of the Z suggests a mid-engine design. The engine is in fact in front of the driver, but it's behind the front axle. That's why Nissan calls it a front mid-ship placement (somewhat similar to the Mazda RX-8 design). 

The Z shares its under-body architecture with the Infiniti G35 coupe and sedan. Moving the engine rearward evens out weight distribution, which improves handling balance. The Z Roadster adds more than 80 kg to the hatchback's 1630 kg, but the weight front/rear weight split remains at 53/47 percent. It's balanced well for accelerating out of corners. 

An extremely short front overhang and a short rear overhang make for agile handling. It also means you don't scrape driveway transitions like you do in a Corvette. Bulging fender flares make the Z look like it's ready for the racetrack, which it is. 

The hatchback's shape helps the Z slice through the air with a minimum of drag (0.29 on the Track model). The Roadster's more traditional coupe outline isn't quite as slippery, attaining a drag coefficient of 0.34. (But what do you care when you've got the wind in your hair?) Underbody airflow is managed well, with zero lift on the front (and zero lift on the rear of the Track model). All this math adds up to relatively low levels of wind noise, even in the Roadster with the top up, and a stable sports car at high speeds. 

Nissan 350Z Roadster

Nissan 350Z Roadster

With the top down, conversation in the Roadster required only slightly raised voice levels; the stereo did, however, have to be cranked up a bit. 

Inside the 350Z is a cockpit designed for driving, helping the driver quickly become one with the car. The carbon-fiber colored cloth seats are form-fitting, supportive and comfortable, made of a soft material that grips the body in the corners. The driver's seat bottom features a mound in the center at the front to restrain the driver from sliding forward under deceleration. Aggressive side bolsters grip the waist to hold the driver in place. The leather seats in the Touring model feel a little firmer than the cloth, and are available in charcoal, burnt orange or frost. Either cloth or leather are good choices in this car. The supportive seats and a driver's dead pedal mean you never feel like you have to hang on. 

Nissan 350Z 2005 interior

Nissan 350Z 2005 interior

The seating position should be good for drivers with long legs, though the steering wheel felt a little close when the seat was adjusted for the legs of a six-footer. It's worth noting, however, that this feeling went away the moment the key was turned in the ignition. The Roadster boasts an inch more headroom than the hatchback, thanks to the articulation of the top's various mechanicals. 

Tilt the steering column and the main pod of gauges moves with it, ensuring a clear view of the instruments for drivers of all sizes. The instruments consist of a big tachometer and flanking speedometer, fuel and temperature gauges. Reminiscent of the original Z, nestled in three pods on top of the dash are a voltmeter, an oil pressure gauge and a digital trip computer. They look retro-cool, but reading them requires more than a glance. 

Two toggles to the right of the steering wheel operate the trip computer, used to check outside air temperature, distance to empty, speed, average mileage, and average speed. It has a stopwatch function (to check out those 0-60 times), and a tire-pressure monitor for 18-inch wheels. With the Trip Computer, the driver can program a shift light to come on at a certain rpm. The small red indicator on the tachometer begins flashing about 500 rpm before the preset engine speed is reached, whereupon it comes on solid. You can program it for the ideal shift points for acceleration or fuel economy, then let your peripheral vision pick up the indicator. We've seen race cars with this feature (though the red shift light is sometimes as big as a golf ball). If you don't like this feature you can turn it off. 

Nissan 350Z gauges

Nissan 350Z gauges

The interior of the Z seems to suggest a carbon-fiber race car tub. The material surrounding the shifter and forming the centre dash looks like carbon fiber. Likewise, the large expanse of grey material lining the door panels suggests carbon fiber in appearance. The quality of the materials is okay, though some of the pieces would never be allowed in an Audi. It looked austere at first, but grew on us. Stylish interior touches, such as the inside door handles integrated into aerodynamic pods for the side vents, give the Z a racy, modern look; with the AC at work on hot days, the handles chill to fit their frosty look. Passengers often grope for the door release the first time they try to get out, distracted by the big grab handles adorned with genuine aluminium and relieved by the Z's dot motif. 

Stylish audio controls include a big volume knob, clearly marked buttons for channel seeking, and six station buttons that can be preset simply by holding them down. Below the radio are three large knobs for the automatic climate control system, which comes standard. 

Nicely designed wiper and headlamp controls are mounted on short stalks. The leather-wrapped steering wheel looks and feels great, and comes with cruise controls. Overhead are well-designed map lights and a bin for sunglasses. Power window switches are auto-up/auto-down. Two power points are available, one in the center console, the other in the bulkhead between and behind the seats (but neither is conveniently located for radar detectors). 

The Z is not the best place to drink things.

Turning the key and hearing the engine roar to life is the first indication the Nissan 350Z is no poser. Turning onto a winding road proves this beyond a shadow of doubt. Sharp steering, terrific handling, and excellent grip make it a real driver's car. This car is very fast with brilliant acceleration. The Roadster's additional weight, a result of the platform strengthening to increase rigidity, no doubt adds a tick or two to the 0-60 measurement but isn't noticed in everyday driving. 

Nissan 350Z motor 3.5 V6

Nissan 350Z motor 3.5 V6

Mounted longitudinally and driving the rear wheels is Nissan's excellent VQ V6 engine. It's smooth and sounds like a big sports car engine. It generates lots of torque at low rpm, pulling smoothly from about 2000 rpm. Maximum torque of 274 pound-feet comes at 4800 rpm, tapering off as 287 horsepower is reached at 6200 rpm. The engine is still pulling smoothly as the rev limiter steps in somewhere just north of 6500 rpm, but this engine is more about low-rpm torque than high-revving horsepower. Nissan's Continuously Variable Valve Timing Control System helps the V6 produce a nice, linear band of torque. Drive-by-wire technology reduces mechanical weight and complexity. 

The short-throw shifter feels good and it's effective. The six-speed gearbox shifts quickly and deliberately. It feels perfectly synchronised, making shifting easy and enjoyable. Clutch pedal effort has enough heft to remind the driver that this is a serious sports car. With the Roadster's top down, the exhaust tone is music to the driver's ears, rising and falling melodiously and crisply as the gears are worked through the turns on a twisty road. 

Nissan 350Z interior

Nissan 350Z interior

The automatic transmission works great, really smooth and responsive, and it didn't leave us feeling like we were missing out by not having the manual. With manual mode selected, the automatic holds lower gears right up to the rev limiter, upshifting only when the driver desires. Downshifts are electronically managed to ensure an overly rambunctious pilot doesn't over-rev the sweet V6. The delicious exhaust tone is wasted on Roadsters fitted with the automatic, though, when it wanders almost aimlessly up and down the scale as the engine slips seamlessly amongst the gears. 

Handling feels taut and well controlled in both hatchback and Roadster. These cars really stick through fast sweepers, allowing the driver to keep the throttle down. The steering is sharp and accurate and the Z changes directions brilliantly in transient manoeuvres, without excessive understeer turning in or sloppy oversteer coming out. Cornering is flat, without much body lean.  The ride gets jouncy on bumpy roads, most noticeably when cruising slowly, but it doesn't beat you up and we expect a firm ride with a sports car like this. 

Nissan 350Z 18' Rays forged rims

Nissan 350Z 18' Rays forged rims

Buffeting at highway speeds with the top down was much less than we expected, thanks to the tempered glass deflector mounted between the rollbars behind the seats and to racy body panels tapering back from each of the seat positions. Anti-flap seatbelt retainers further reduce the perceived buffeting effect. Rear side vision loses little to the convertible top, as the hatchback's quarter panel already blocks a sizable area of blind spot. 

The brakes are easy to modulate, fun to use, and do a good job of stopping the car. Electronic brake-force distribution (EBD) and Brake Assist come standard on all 350Zs. Just like it sounds, electronic brake-force distribution improves stopping performance by dynamically balancing front and rear braking forces. Brake Assist is a mechanical system that appli. 

The Nissan 350Z stands alone in its price class. This is the car for drivers who want serious sports car performance in a GT body without shelling out the big bucks. And Nissan has added a truly sporty variant to the mix with the 35th Anniversary Z. 

Its rear-wheel-drive chassis is rigid and its suspension is taut for excellent handling. The V6 engine delivers lots of torque for strong acceleration performance. Whether you opt for the six-speed manual gearbox or the five-speed automatic, there are no dogs in the lineup. The interior is the weakest link here, but it grows on you with a little time spent living with it. 

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